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For the role, she learned an Ozark accent , chose costumes and make-up that lacked the glamour of her earlier films, and provided deliberately mediocre singing and dancing.

Bus Stop was released in August and became critical and commercial success. Marilyn Monroe has finally proved herself an actress. Monroe also experienced other problems during the production.

Her dependence on pharmaceuticals escalated and, according to Spoto, she had a miscarriage. After returning from England, Monroe took an month hiatus to concentrate on family life.

In the end, Wilder was happy with Monroe's performance and stated: "Anyone can remember lines, but it takes a real artist to come on the set and not know her lines and yet give the performance she did!

The last film that Monroe completed was John Huston's The Misfits , which Miller had written to provide her with a dramatic role.

The filming in the Nevada desert between July and November was again difficult. It was the real thing.

She would go deep down within herself and find it and bring it up into consciousness. Monroe and Miller separated after filming wrapped, and she obtained a Mexican divorce in January Geoff Andrew of the British Film Institute has called it a classic, [] Huston scholar Tony Tracy has described Monroe's performance the "most mature interpretation of her career", [] and Geoffrey McNab of The Independent has praised her for being "extraordinary" in portraying the character's "power of empathy".

Monroe was next to star in a television adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham 's Rain for NBC , but the project fell through as the network did not want to hire her choice of director, Lee Strasberg.

She underwent a cholecystectomy and surgery for her endometriosis, and spent four weeks hospitalized for depression.

President " on stage at President John F. Monroe next filmed a scene for Something's Got to Give in which she swam naked in a swimming pool.

This was the first time that a major star had posed nude at the height of their career. Fox soon regretted its decision and re-opened negotiations with Monroe later in June; a settlement about a new contract, including re-commencing Something's Got to Give and a starring role in the black comedy What a Way to Go!

Her housekeeper Eunice Murray was staying overnight at the home on the evening of August 4, She saw light from under Monroe's bedroom door, but was unable to get a response and found the door locked.

Murray then called Monroe's psychiatrist, Dr. Ralph Greenson , who arrived at the house shortly after and broke into the bedroom through a window to find Monroe dead in her bed.

Monroe's sudden death was front-page news in the United States and Europe. In the following decades, several conspiracy theories , including murder and accidental overdose, have been introduced to contradict suicide as the cause of Monroe's death.

The s had been the heyday for actresses who were perceived as tough and smart—such as Katharine Hepburn and Barbara Stanwyck —who had appealed to women-dominated audiences during the war years.

From the beginning, Monroe played a significant part in the creation of her public image, and towards the end of her career exerted almost full control over it.

In her films, Monroe usually played "the girl", who is defined solely by her gender. In press stories, Monroe was portrayed as the embodiment of the American Dream , a girl who had risen from a miserable childhood to Hollywood stardom.

Although Monroe's screen persona as a dim-witted but sexually attractive blonde was a carefully crafted act, audiences and film critics believed it to be her real personality.

This became an obstacle when she wanted to pursue other kinds of roles, or to be respected as a businesswoman. The biggest myth is that she was dumb.

The second is that she was fragile. The third is that she couldn't act. She was far from dumb, although she was not formally educated, and she was very sensitive about that.

But she was very smart indeed—and very tough. She had to be both to beat the Hollywood studio system in the s.

Such a good actress that no one now believes she was anything but what she portrayed on screen. Biographer Lois Banner has written that Monroe often subtly parodied her status as a sex symbol in her films and public appearances, [] and that "the 'Marilyn Monroe' character she created was a brilliant archetype, who stands between Mae West and Madonna in the tradition of twentieth-century gender tricksters.

According to Dyer, Monroe became "virtually a household name for sex" in the s and "her image has to be situated in the flux of ideas about morality and sexuality that characterised the Fifties in America", such as Freudian ideas about sex, the Kinsey report , and Betty Friedan 's The Feminine Mystique Dyer has also argued that Monroe's blonde hair became her defining feature because it made her "racially unambiguous" and exclusively white just as the civil rights movement was beginning, and that she should be seen as emblematic of racism in twentieth-century popular culture.

Monroe was perceived as a specifically American star, "a national institution as well known as hot dogs, apple pie, or baseball" according to Photoplay.

If America was to export the democracy of glamour into post-war, impoverished Europe, the movies could be its shop window Marilyn Monroe, with her all American attributes and streamlined sexuality, came to epitomise in a single image this complex interface of the economic, the political, and the erotic.

By the mid s, she stood for a brand of classless glamour, available to anyone using American cosmetics, nylons and peroxide. Twentieth Century-Fox further profited from Monroe's popularity by cultivating several lookalike actresses, such as Jayne Mansfield and Sheree North.

The Smithsonian Institution has included her on their list of " Most Significant Americans of All Time", [] and both Variety and VH1 have placed her in the top ten in their rankings of the greatest popular culture icons of the twentieth century.

Hundreds of books have been written about Monroe. She has been the subject of films, plays, operas, and songs, and has influenced artists and entertainers such as Andy Warhol and Madonna.

Monroe's enduring popularity is linked to her conflicted public image. Due to the contrast between her stardom and troubled private life, Monroe is closely linked to broader discussions about modern phenomena such as mass media, fame, and consumer culture.

Monroe remains a cultural icon, but critics are divided on her legacy as an actress. David Thomson called her body of work "insubstantial" [] and Pauline Kael wrote that she could not act, but rather "used her lack of an actress's skills to amuse the public.

She had the wit or crassness or desperation to turn cheesecake into acting—and vice versa; she did what others had the 'good taste' not to do".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Norma Jean disambiguation and Marilyn Monroe disambiguation. American actress, model, and singer.

Los Angeles , California, U. James Dougherty. Joe DiMaggio. Arthur Miller. Up in front, there with the screen so big, a little kid all alone, and I loved it.

Monroe as a 20th Century-Fox contract player in She had two small film roles while under contract and was let go after a year.

Studio publicity photo. Monroe as Rose Loomis in the film noir Niagara , which dwelt on her sex appeal. Monroe and co-star Jane Russell after pressing their hands in wet concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theatre.

Main article: Death of Marilyn Monroe. I always thought symbols were those things you clash together! That's the trouble, a sex symbol becomes a thing.

I just hate to be a thing. But if I'm going to be a symbol of something I'd rather have it sex than some other things they've got symbols of.

Main article: Marilyn Monroe in popular culture. Main article: Marilyn Monroe performances and awards. Dangerous Years Scudda Hoo!

She told him about her grievances with the studio, and Greene suggested that they start their own production company. Although they sometimes had casual sexual encounters, there is no evidence that their relationship was serious.

Los Angeles Times. Tribune Publishing. Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved September 23, The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on November 4, Retrieved October 21, Wartime Press.

Archived from the original on August 7, Retrieved January 13, Retrieved September 11, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 18, American Film Institute.

Retrieved August 8, The New York Times. Penske Media Corporation. December 31, Public Broadcasting Service. July 19, Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved July 11, Quigley Publishing Company.

Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved August 25, January 22, Archived from the original on November 5, Archived from the original on November 21, Archived from the original on September 26, Westchester Magazine.

Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved May 17, February 24, Archived from the original on October 31, August 22, Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved January 21, Retrieved September 5, British Film Institute.

Archived from the original on September 5, Archived from the original on October 11, Archived from the original on April 22, Archived from the original on November 18, Retrieved November 16, Archived from the original on November 1, Archived from the original on September 10, Retrieved September 10, The Independent.

Archived from the original on November 17, Archived from the original on March 10, Archived from the original on March 7, August 6, Time Inc.

September 3, Archived from the original on November 19, Retrieved October 15, Smithsonian Institution.

The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved June 16, Women's Review of Books.

Archived from the original on May 1, Murray telephoned Greenson, on whose advice she looked in through a window, and saw Monroe lying facedown on her bed, covered by a sheet and clutching a telephone receiver.

Greenson arrived shortly thereafter. He entered the room by breaking a window and found Monroe dead. Deputy coroner Thomas Noguchi conducted Monroe's autopsy on the same day that she was found dead—Sunday, August 5—which was the day after she died.

The findings of the inquest were published on August 17; Chief Coroner Theodore Curphey classified Monroe's death a "probable suicide". Miss Monroe had suffered from psychiatric disturbance for a long time.

She experienced severe fears and frequent depressions. Mood changes were abrupt and unpredictable. Among symptoms of disorganization, sleep disturbance was prominent, for which she had been taking sedative drugs for many years.

She was thus familiar with and experienced in the use of sedative drugs and well aware of their dangers In our investigation we have learned that Miss Monroe had often expressed wishes to give up, to withdraw, and even to die.

On more than one occasion in the past, she had made a suicide attempt, using sedative drugs. On these occasions, she had called for help and had been rescued.

It is our opinion that the same pattern was repeated on the evening of Aug. It has been our practice with similar information collected in other cases in the past to recommend a certification for such deaths as probable suicide.

Additional clews for suicide provided by the physical evidence are the high level of barbiturates and chloral hydrate in the blood which, with other evidence from the autopsy, indicates the probable ingestion of a large amount of drugs within a short period of time: the completely empty bottle of Nembutal, the prescription for which 25 capsules was filled the day before the ingestion, and the locked door to the bedroom, which was unusual.

In the s, claims surfaced that Monroe's death was a murder and not suicide. Tomich, an investigator for the district attorney's office, for over three months on an inquiry that resulted in a thirty-page report.

In , Thomas Noguchi published his memoirs, in which he discussed Monroe's case and the allegations of discrepancies in the autopsy and the coroner's ruling of suicide.

Noguchi explained that hemorrhaging of the stomach lining indicated that the medication had been administered orally, and that because Monroe had been an addict for several years, the pills would have been absorbed more rapidly than in the case of non-addicts.

Monroe's unexpected death was front-page news in the United States and Europe. The service was arranged by her former husband Joe DiMaggio and her business manager Inez Melson, who decided to invite only around thirty of her closest family members and friends, excluding most of Hollywood.

Police were present to keep the press away and to control the several hundred spectators who crowded the streets around the cemetery. The funeral service, presided over by a local minister, was conducted at the cemetery's chapel.

Monroe was laid out in a green Emilio Pucci dress and held a bouquet of small pink roses; her longtime make-up artist and friend, Whitey Snyder , had done her make-up.

The eulogy was delivered by Lee Strasberg , and a selection from Tchaikovsky 's Sixth Symphony as well as a record of Judy Garland singing " Over the Rainbow " were played.

Monroe was interred at crypt No. DiMaggio arranged for red roses to be placed in a vase attached to the crypt three times a week for the next 20 years.

When Strasberg died in , his estate was willed to his widow Anna, who claimed Monroe's publicity rights and began to license her image to companies.

Marilyn Monroe LLC's claim to exclusive ownership of Monroe's publicity rights became subject to a "landmark [legal] case" in , when the heirs of three freelance photographers who had photographed her— Sam Shaw , Milton Greene , and Tom Kelley —successfully challenged the company in courts in California and New York.

The estate terminated their business relationship with CMG Worldwide in , and sold the licensing rights to Authentic Brands Group the following year.

During the s, there were no widespread conspiracy theories about Monroe's death. Capell 's self-published pamphlet The Strange Death of Marilyn Monroe , in which he claimed that her death was part of a communist conspiracy.

He claimed that Monroe and U. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy had an affair, which she took too seriously and was threatening to cause a scandal; Kennedy therefore ordered her to be assassinated to protect his career.

Capell's credibility has been seriously questioned because his only source was columnist Walter Winchell , who in turn had received much of his information from him; Capell, therefore, was citing himself.

Capell and Clemmons' allegations have been linked to their political goals. Capell dedicated his life to revealing an "International Communist Conspiracy" and Clemmons was a member of The Police and Fire Research Organization FiPo , which sought to expose "subversive activities which threaten our American way of life".

Kennedy is likely to have come from them. The allegations of murder first became part of mainstream discussion with the publication of Norman Mailer 's Marilyn: A Biography in Kennedy had an affair and speculated that she was killed by either the FBI or CIA , who wished to use the murder as a "point of pressure Two years later, Robert F.

Kennedy, Slatzer also controversially claimed to have been married to Monroe in Mexico for three days in October , and that they had remained close friends until her death.

In October , rock journalist Anthony Scaduto published an article about Monroe's death in soft porn magazine Oui , and the following year expanded his account into book form as Who Killed Marilyn Monroe?

His only sources were Slatzer and his private investigator, Milo Speriglio. Speriglio and Slatzer demanded that the investigation into Monroe's death be re-opened by authorities, and the Los Angeles District Attorney agreed to review the case.

Spindel's apartment had been raided by the Manhattan District Attorney 's office in , during which his tapes were seized. The most prominent Monroe conspiracy theorist in the s was British journalist Anthony Summers , who claimed that Monroe's death was an accidental overdose enabled and covered up by Robert F.

His investigation on Monroe began as an assignment for the British tabloid the Sunday Express to cover the Los Angeles District Attorney's review.

According to Summers, Monroe had severe substance abuse problems and was psychotic in the last months of her life. Kennedy, and that when Robert F.

Kennedy ended their affair, she threatened to reveal their association. Kennedy and Peter Lawford attempted to prevent this by enabling her addictions.

Edgar Hoover. Summers based his account on interviews he had conducted with people connected to Monroe, but his research has been criticized by biographers Donald Spoto and Sarah Churchwell.

Neither presented much new evidence but relied extensively on Capell and Summers as well as on discredited witnesses such as Grandison, Slatzer, Clemmons, and Carmen; Wolfe also did not provide any sources for many of his claims, and disregarded many of the findings of the autopsy without explanation.

In his biography of Monroe, Donald Spoto disputed the previous conspiracy theories but alleged that Monroe's death was an accidental overdose staged as a suicide.

In order to monitor her drug use, they had agreed to never prescribe her anything without first consulting with each other.

She took several Nembutals on August 4, but did not tell this to Greenson, who prescribed her a chloral hydrate enema; the combination of these two drugs killed her.

Spoto argued that Monroe could not have been suicidal because she had reached a new agreement with 20th Century Fox and because she was allegedly going to remarry Joe DiMaggio.

Miner had alleged that her autopsy revealed signs more consistent with an enema than oral ingestion. John Miner's allegations that Monroe's death was not a suicide received more publicity in the s, when he published transcripts that he claimed to have made from audiotapes that Monroe recorded shortly before her death.

On the tapes, Monroe spoke of her plans for the future, which Miner argues is proof that she could not have killed herself. Miner's allegations have received criticism.

During the official review of the case by the district attorney in , he told the investigators about the tapes, but did not mention that he had transcripts of them.

Greenson was already dead before Miner went public with them. Biographer Lois Banner knew Miner personally because they both worked at the University of Southern California ; she further challenged the authenticity of the transcripts.

Kennedy, as the agency wanted revenge for the Kennedys' handling of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Monroe performing at President John F. Kennedy 's birthday celebration at Madison Square Garden in May , less than three months before her death.

Monroe in one of her last photo shoots, taken by George Barris for Cosmopolitan in July Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 21,

At approximately 3 First time hentai. Retrieved August 30, Edgar Hoover. Retrieved September 10, — via PR Newswire. He told her that he had broken up with a girlfriend she Sites like meatspin not like, and he detected nothing alarming in Monroe's behavior. She had to be both Chauturbate beat the Hollywood studio Furry beach club coins in the s. Vibrator tumblr has been our practice with similar Filipina lbfm collected in other Porn star photo galleries in the past to recommend a certification for such deaths as probable suicide. Archived from the original on July 25,

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In October , she appeared as a blonde vamp in the play Glamour Preferred at the Bliss-Hayden Theater , but it ended after only a few performances.

Schenck , who persuaded his friend Harry Cohn , the head executive of Columbia Pictures , to sign her in March While at Fox, Monroe was given "girl next door" roles; at Columbia, she was modeled after Rita Hayworth.

Their relationship soon became sexual and he proposed marriage, but Monroe refused. She appeared in advertisements for Pabst beer and posed in artistic nudes for John Baumgarth calendars using the name 'Mona Monroe' ; both sessions were shot by Tom Kelley.

Although she then contained the resulting scandal by claiming she had reluctancly posed nude due to an urgent need for cash, biographers Spoto and Banner have stated that she was not pressured although according to Banner, she was initially hesitant due to her aspirations of movie stardom and regarded the shoot as simply another work assignment.

Monroe found herself at the center of a scandal in March , when she revealed that she had posed for nude pictures in , which were now featured in a calendar.

In the wake of the scandal, Monroe was featured on the cover of Life as the "Talk of Hollywood" and gossip columnist Hedda Hopper declared her the "cheesecake queen" turned "box office smash".

Despite her newfound popularity as a sex symbol, Monroe also wished to show more of her acting range. She had begun taking acting classes with Michael Chekhov and mime Lotte Goslar soon after beginning the Fox contract, [90] and Clash by Night and Don't Bother to Knock showed her in more nuanced roles.

Monroe's three other films in continued with her typecasting in comic roles that focused on her sex appeal. In We're Not Married! Henry's Full House , she had a minor role as a sex worker.

During this period, Monroe gained a reputation for being difficult to work with, which would worsen as her career progressed.

She was often late or did not show up at all, did not remember her lines, and would demand several re-takes before she was satisfied with her performance.

Monroe starred in three movies that were released in and emerged as a major sex symbol and one of Hollywood's most bankable performers.

When Niagara was released in January , women's clubs protested it as immoral, but it proved popular with audiences. While Niagara made Monroe a sex symbol and established her "look", her second film of , the satirical musical comedy Gentlemen Prefer Blondes , cemented her screen persona as a "dumb blonde".

Monroe's role was originally intended for Betty Grable , who had been 20th Century-Fox's most popular " blonde bombshell " in the s; Monroe was fast eclipsing her as a star who could appeal to both male and female audiences.

It was the second film ever released in CinemaScope , a widescreen format that Fox hoped would draw audiences back to theaters as television was beginning to cause losses to film studios.

Monroe had become one of 20th Century-Fox's biggest stars, but her contract had not changed since , meaning that she was paid far less than other stars of her stature and could not choose her projects.

Zanuck, who had a strong personal dislike of her and did not think she would earn the studio as much revenue in other types of roles.

This was front-page news, and Monroe immediately took action to counter negative publicity. Marines over a four-day period. In April , Otto Preminger 's western River of No Return , the last film that Monroe had filmed prior to the suspension, was released.

She called it a " Z-grade cowboy movie in which the acting finished second to the scenery and the CinemaScope process", but it was popular with audiences.

In September , Monroe began filming Billy Wilder 's comedy The Seven Year Itch , starring opposite Tom Ewell as a woman who becomes the object of her married neighbor's sexual fantasies.

Although the film was shot in Hollywood, the studio decided to generate advance publicity by staging the filming of a scene in which Monroe is standing on a subway grate with the air blowing up the skirt of her white dress on Lexington Avenue in Manhattan.

The publicity stunt placed Monroe on international front pages, and it also marked the end of her marriage to DiMaggio, who was infuriated by it.

After filming for The Seven Year Itch wrapped up in November , Monroe left Hollywood for the East Coast, where she and photographer Milton Greene founded their own production company, Marilyn Monroe Productions MMP —an action that has later been called "instrumental" in the collapse of the studio system.

She took classes with Constance Collier and attended workshops on method acting at the Actors Studio , run by Lee Strasberg. Monroe continued her relationship with DiMaggio despite the ongoing divorce process; she also dated actor Marlon Brando and playwright Arthur Miller.

By the end of the year, Monroe and Fox signed a new seven-year contract, as MMP would not be able to finance films alone, and the studio was eager to have Monroe working for them again.

Monroe began by announcing her win over 20th Century-Fox. In March, Monroe began filming the drama Bus Stop , her first film under the new contract.

For the role, she learned an Ozark accent , chose costumes and make-up that lacked the glamour of her earlier films, and provided deliberately mediocre singing and dancing.

Bus Stop was released in August and became critical and commercial success. Marilyn Monroe has finally proved herself an actress. Monroe also experienced other problems during the production.

Her dependence on pharmaceuticals escalated and, according to Spoto, she had a miscarriage. After returning from England, Monroe took an month hiatus to concentrate on family life.

In the end, Wilder was happy with Monroe's performance and stated: "Anyone can remember lines, but it takes a real artist to come on the set and not know her lines and yet give the performance she did!

The last film that Monroe completed was John Huston's The Misfits , which Miller had written to provide her with a dramatic role.

The filming in the Nevada desert between July and November was again difficult. It was the real thing.

She would go deep down within herself and find it and bring it up into consciousness. Monroe and Miller separated after filming wrapped, and she obtained a Mexican divorce in January Geoff Andrew of the British Film Institute has called it a classic, [] Huston scholar Tony Tracy has described Monroe's performance the "most mature interpretation of her career", [] and Geoffrey McNab of The Independent has praised her for being "extraordinary" in portraying the character's "power of empathy".

Monroe was next to star in a television adaptation of W. Somerset Maugham 's Rain for NBC , but the project fell through as the network did not want to hire her choice of director, Lee Strasberg.

She underwent a cholecystectomy and surgery for her endometriosis, and spent four weeks hospitalized for depression. President " on stage at President John F.

Monroe next filmed a scene for Something's Got to Give in which she swam naked in a swimming pool.

This was the first time that a major star had posed nude at the height of their career. Fox soon regretted its decision and re-opened negotiations with Monroe later in June; a settlement about a new contract, including re-commencing Something's Got to Give and a starring role in the black comedy What a Way to Go!

Her housekeeper Eunice Murray was staying overnight at the home on the evening of August 4, She saw light from under Monroe's bedroom door, but was unable to get a response and found the door locked.

Murray then called Monroe's psychiatrist, Dr. Ralph Greenson , who arrived at the house shortly after and broke into the bedroom through a window to find Monroe dead in her bed.

Monroe's sudden death was front-page news in the United States and Europe. In the following decades, several conspiracy theories , including murder and accidental overdose, have been introduced to contradict suicide as the cause of Monroe's death.

The s had been the heyday for actresses who were perceived as tough and smart—such as Katharine Hepburn and Barbara Stanwyck —who had appealed to women-dominated audiences during the war years.

From the beginning, Monroe played a significant part in the creation of her public image, and towards the end of her career exerted almost full control over it.

In her films, Monroe usually played "the girl", who is defined solely by her gender. In press stories, Monroe was portrayed as the embodiment of the American Dream , a girl who had risen from a miserable childhood to Hollywood stardom.

Although Monroe's screen persona as a dim-witted but sexually attractive blonde was a carefully crafted act, audiences and film critics believed it to be her real personality.

This became an obstacle when she wanted to pursue other kinds of roles, or to be respected as a businesswoman.

The biggest myth is that she was dumb. The second is that she was fragile. The third is that she couldn't act. She was far from dumb, although she was not formally educated, and she was very sensitive about that.

But she was very smart indeed—and very tough. She had to be both to beat the Hollywood studio system in the s. Such a good actress that no one now believes she was anything but what she portrayed on screen.

Biographer Lois Banner has written that Monroe often subtly parodied her status as a sex symbol in her films and public appearances, [] and that "the 'Marilyn Monroe' character she created was a brilliant archetype, who stands between Mae West and Madonna in the tradition of twentieth-century gender tricksters.

According to Dyer, Monroe became "virtually a household name for sex" in the s and "her image has to be situated in the flux of ideas about morality and sexuality that characterised the Fifties in America", such as Freudian ideas about sex, the Kinsey report , and Betty Friedan 's The Feminine Mystique Dyer has also argued that Monroe's blonde hair became her defining feature because it made her "racially unambiguous" and exclusively white just as the civil rights movement was beginning, and that she should be seen as emblematic of racism in twentieth-century popular culture.

Monroe was perceived as a specifically American star, "a national institution as well known as hot dogs, apple pie, or baseball" according to Photoplay.

If America was to export the democracy of glamour into post-war, impoverished Europe, the movies could be its shop window Marilyn Monroe, with her all American attributes and streamlined sexuality, came to epitomise in a single image this complex interface of the economic, the political, and the erotic.

By the mid s, she stood for a brand of classless glamour, available to anyone using American cosmetics, nylons and peroxide. Twentieth Century-Fox further profited from Monroe's popularity by cultivating several lookalike actresses, such as Jayne Mansfield and Sheree North.

The Smithsonian Institution has included her on their list of " Most Significant Americans of All Time", [] and both Variety and VH1 have placed her in the top ten in their rankings of the greatest popular culture icons of the twentieth century.

Hundreds of books have been written about Monroe. She has been the subject of films, plays, operas, and songs, and has influenced artists and entertainers such as Andy Warhol and Madonna.

Monroe's enduring popularity is linked to her conflicted public image. Due to the contrast between her stardom and troubled private life, Monroe is closely linked to broader discussions about modern phenomena such as mass media, fame, and consumer culture.

Monroe remains a cultural icon, but critics are divided on her legacy as an actress. David Thomson called her body of work "insubstantial" [] and Pauline Kael wrote that she could not act, but rather "used her lack of an actress's skills to amuse the public.

She had the wit or crassness or desperation to turn cheesecake into acting—and vice versa; she did what others had the 'good taste' not to do".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Norma Jean disambiguation and Marilyn Monroe disambiguation. American actress, model, and singer.

Los Angeles , California, U. James Dougherty. Joe DiMaggio. Arthur Miller. Up in front, there with the screen so big, a little kid all alone, and I loved it.

Monroe as a 20th Century-Fox contract player in She had two small film roles while under contract and was let go after a year.

Studio publicity photo. Monroe as Rose Loomis in the film noir Niagara , which dwelt on her sex appeal.

Monroe and co-star Jane Russell after pressing their hands in wet concrete at Grauman's Chinese Theatre. Main article: Death of Marilyn Monroe.

I always thought symbols were those things you clash together! That's the trouble, a sex symbol becomes a thing.

I just hate to be a thing. But if I'm going to be a symbol of something I'd rather have it sex than some other things they've got symbols of.

Main article: Marilyn Monroe in popular culture. Main article: Marilyn Monroe performances and awards.

Dangerous Years Scudda Hoo! She told him about her grievances with the studio, and Greene suggested that they start their own production company.

Although they sometimes had casual sexual encounters, there is no evidence that their relationship was serious. Los Angeles Times.

Tribune Publishing. Archived from the original on September 25, Retrieved September 23, The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Archived from the original on November 4, Retrieved October 21, Wartime Press.

Archived from the original on August 7, Retrieved January 13, Retrieved September 11, Chicago Tribune. Retrieved October 18, American Film Institute.

Retrieved August 8, The New York Times. Penske Media Corporation. December 31, Public Broadcasting Service.

July 19, Archived from the original on August 10, Retrieved July 11, Quigley Publishing Company. Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved August 25, January 22, Archived from the original on November 5, Unable to reach Monroe, Lawford called his agent Milton Ebbins, who unsuccessfully tried to reach Greenson, and later called Monroe's lawyer, Milton A.

Rudin called Monroe's house, and was assured by her housekeeper that she was fine. Murray telephoned Greenson, on whose advice she looked in through a window, and saw Monroe lying facedown on her bed, covered by a sheet and clutching a telephone receiver.

Greenson arrived shortly thereafter. He entered the room by breaking a window and found Monroe dead.

Deputy coroner Thomas Noguchi conducted Monroe's autopsy on the same day that she was found dead—Sunday, August 5—which was the day after she died.

The findings of the inquest were published on August 17; Chief Coroner Theodore Curphey classified Monroe's death a "probable suicide". Miss Monroe had suffered from psychiatric disturbance for a long time.

She experienced severe fears and frequent depressions. Mood changes were abrupt and unpredictable. Among symptoms of disorganization, sleep disturbance was prominent, for which she had been taking sedative drugs for many years.

She was thus familiar with and experienced in the use of sedative drugs and well aware of their dangers In our investigation we have learned that Miss Monroe had often expressed wishes to give up, to withdraw, and even to die.

On more than one occasion in the past, she had made a suicide attempt, using sedative drugs. On these occasions, she had called for help and had been rescued.

It is our opinion that the same pattern was repeated on the evening of Aug. It has been our practice with similar information collected in other cases in the past to recommend a certification for such deaths as probable suicide.

Additional clews for suicide provided by the physical evidence are the high level of barbiturates and chloral hydrate in the blood which, with other evidence from the autopsy, indicates the probable ingestion of a large amount of drugs within a short period of time: the completely empty bottle of Nembutal, the prescription for which 25 capsules was filled the day before the ingestion, and the locked door to the bedroom, which was unusual.

In the s, claims surfaced that Monroe's death was a murder and not suicide. Tomich, an investigator for the district attorney's office, for over three months on an inquiry that resulted in a thirty-page report.

In , Thomas Noguchi published his memoirs, in which he discussed Monroe's case and the allegations of discrepancies in the autopsy and the coroner's ruling of suicide.

Noguchi explained that hemorrhaging of the stomach lining indicated that the medication had been administered orally, and that because Monroe had been an addict for several years, the pills would have been absorbed more rapidly than in the case of non-addicts.

Monroe's unexpected death was front-page news in the United States and Europe. The service was arranged by her former husband Joe DiMaggio and her business manager Inez Melson, who decided to invite only around thirty of her closest family members and friends, excluding most of Hollywood.

Police were present to keep the press away and to control the several hundred spectators who crowded the streets around the cemetery.

The funeral service, presided over by a local minister, was conducted at the cemetery's chapel. Monroe was laid out in a green Emilio Pucci dress and held a bouquet of small pink roses; her longtime make-up artist and friend, Whitey Snyder , had done her make-up.

The eulogy was delivered by Lee Strasberg , and a selection from Tchaikovsky 's Sixth Symphony as well as a record of Judy Garland singing " Over the Rainbow " were played.

Monroe was interred at crypt No. DiMaggio arranged for red roses to be placed in a vase attached to the crypt three times a week for the next 20 years.

When Strasberg died in , his estate was willed to his widow Anna, who claimed Monroe's publicity rights and began to license her image to companies.

Marilyn Monroe LLC's claim to exclusive ownership of Monroe's publicity rights became subject to a "landmark [legal] case" in , when the heirs of three freelance photographers who had photographed her— Sam Shaw , Milton Greene , and Tom Kelley —successfully challenged the company in courts in California and New York.

The estate terminated their business relationship with CMG Worldwide in , and sold the licensing rights to Authentic Brands Group the following year.

During the s, there were no widespread conspiracy theories about Monroe's death. Capell 's self-published pamphlet The Strange Death of Marilyn Monroe , in which he claimed that her death was part of a communist conspiracy.

He claimed that Monroe and U. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy had an affair, which she took too seriously and was threatening to cause a scandal; Kennedy therefore ordered her to be assassinated to protect his career.

Capell's credibility has been seriously questioned because his only source was columnist Walter Winchell , who in turn had received much of his information from him; Capell, therefore, was citing himself.

Capell and Clemmons' allegations have been linked to their political goals. Capell dedicated his life to revealing an "International Communist Conspiracy" and Clemmons was a member of The Police and Fire Research Organization FiPo , which sought to expose "subversive activities which threaten our American way of life".

Kennedy is likely to have come from them. The allegations of murder first became part of mainstream discussion with the publication of Norman Mailer 's Marilyn: A Biography in Kennedy had an affair and speculated that she was killed by either the FBI or CIA , who wished to use the murder as a "point of pressure Two years later, Robert F.

Kennedy, Slatzer also controversially claimed to have been married to Monroe in Mexico for three days in October , and that they had remained close friends until her death.

In October , rock journalist Anthony Scaduto published an article about Monroe's death in soft porn magazine Oui , and the following year expanded his account into book form as Who Killed Marilyn Monroe?

His only sources were Slatzer and his private investigator, Milo Speriglio. Speriglio and Slatzer demanded that the investigation into Monroe's death be re-opened by authorities, and the Los Angeles District Attorney agreed to review the case.

Spindel's apartment had been raided by the Manhattan District Attorney 's office in , during which his tapes were seized.

The most prominent Monroe conspiracy theorist in the s was British journalist Anthony Summers , who claimed that Monroe's death was an accidental overdose enabled and covered up by Robert F.

His investigation on Monroe began as an assignment for the British tabloid the Sunday Express to cover the Los Angeles District Attorney's review.

According to Summers, Monroe had severe substance abuse problems and was psychotic in the last months of her life. Kennedy, and that when Robert F.

Kennedy ended their affair, she threatened to reveal their association. Kennedy and Peter Lawford attempted to prevent this by enabling her addictions.

Edgar Hoover. Summers based his account on interviews he had conducted with people connected to Monroe, but his research has been criticized by biographers Donald Spoto and Sarah Churchwell.

Neither presented much new evidence but relied extensively on Capell and Summers as well as on discredited witnesses such as Grandison, Slatzer, Clemmons, and Carmen; Wolfe also did not provide any sources for many of his claims, and disregarded many of the findings of the autopsy without explanation.

In his biography of Monroe, Donald Spoto disputed the previous conspiracy theories but alleged that Monroe's death was an accidental overdose staged as a suicide.

In order to monitor her drug use, they had agreed to never prescribe her anything without first consulting with each other.

She took several Nembutals on August 4, but did not tell this to Greenson, who prescribed her a chloral hydrate enema; the combination of these two drugs killed her.

Spoto argued that Monroe could not have been suicidal because she had reached a new agreement with 20th Century Fox and because she was allegedly going to remarry Joe DiMaggio.

Miner had alleged that her autopsy revealed signs more consistent with an enema than oral ingestion. John Miner's allegations that Monroe's death was not a suicide received more publicity in the s, when he published transcripts that he claimed to have made from audiotapes that Monroe recorded shortly before her death.

On the tapes, Monroe spoke of her plans for the future, which Miner argues is proof that she could not have killed herself.

Miner's allegations have received criticism. During the official review of the case by the district attorney in , he told the investigators about the tapes, but did not mention that he had transcripts of them.

Greenson was already dead before Miner went public with them. Biographer Lois Banner knew Miner personally because they both worked at the University of Southern California ; she further challenged the authenticity of the transcripts.

Kennedy, as the agency wanted revenge for the Kennedys' handling of the Bay of Pigs Invasion. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Monroe performing at President John F. Kennedy 's birthday celebration at Madison Square Garden in May , less than three months before her death. Monroe in one of her last photo shoots, taken by George Barris for Cosmopolitan in July

Madaline monroe

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